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In this area of expertise, we have a buzzword called the Enterprise Architecture EA. Fig — A. Before detailing out the architecture types mentioned above, I would like to first touch upon the overall operating model. In typical operating models, organizations start these practices in silos, and a different group of individuals or top management kicks off the initiatives but are usually unable to maintain incremental gains.
There are communication gaps between these groups, and final hand-off throws in a chaotic situation. The McKinsey researcher has put up five levers to drive the next-generation operating model. Here, I would like to present the same Fig — B :. In a nutshell, business processes need to be re-framed, i. In accordance, we should first analyze the rationals and implications of the proposed system design. Share This Paper.
Figures, Tables, and Topics from this paper. Figures and Tables. Citations Publications citing this paper. The relationship between knowledge management with the improving professional activities of the Customs Parviz Kafchehi , Kayvan taherkhoyani , Kaveh Hasani , Saman Sheikhesmaeili , Aref Abdi. Reinehr , Andreia Malucelli. References Publications referenced by this paper. Tempich , S. Pinto , S. IMS LD was developed to allow lesson plans and best practices to be structured using a common language based on a formal representation and archived in a machine readable and searchable repository.
It is a pedagogy-neutral modeling language and can be used to model a wide range of pedagogical strategies such as rationalist and cultural-historic strategies Koper ; Sloep et al. It has many features e. Therefore, IMS LD is a good candidate provided we can decrease the technical complexity of the modeling language and increase the expressiveness to sufficiently represent a WBL project plan.
A knowledge artifact may be an expected output of an activity such as an architectural plan or an unpredictable, externalized tacit knowledge such as a recorded reflection. Although sometimes it is technically possible to represent a predictable output using the concept or construct of the property in IMS LD, such a simple model with a primitive data-type e. These artifact attributes are needed by the system to manage and retrieve the knowledge artifact.
If these attributes are defined as separate properties note: property group is not suited here because all members of the property group must have the same data-type , it is impossible for the system to manage the relations between these user-defined properties. In addition, the property cannot be used to represent an unpredictable knowledge artifact such as a reflection recorded, because a property has to be declared explicitly at design-time.
The introduction of the concept of artifact, if done properly, will provide a way to model and support processes of knowledge creation and sharing in WBL projects. Although taking place at the same location, they are not the same. Work is directed towards producing some output. Learning is directed towards the acquisition of knowledge or the capacity to gain further knowledge. Many work assignments require employees to engage in learning before the work can be effectively completed. In fact, WBL typically emphasizes learning beyond the immediate and necessary requirements of work completion.
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The knowledge that is the object of learning may or may not be closely related to whatever the organization produces now or in the future Boud and Solomon, However, to the external observer the activities associated with each may not be easily separated. Moreover, with respect to the LD specification it would not be necessary to distinguish between learning activity and working activity, because their differences in internal structures and relationships with other elements are not significant from the perspective of modeling.
Analogously, the boundary between a learning activity and a support activity becomes blurred sometimes in a WBL project. For example, if a market consultant helps a finance consultant to estimate cost, it is difficult to declare it as a support activity or a learning activity from the perspective of modeling, because both consultants learn from and support each other.
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Introduce new activity structures: The current version of LD enables to specify the control-flow at two levels using pre-defined structures. A play consists of a set of acts structured as a recommended sequence note: it is not a strictly controlled sequence except to explicitly specify the completion of the acts. An act consists of a set of unstructured role-parts that can be performed in arbitrary sequence or in parallel except if they are used to explicitly specify temporal relations between these activities using conditions. In addition, two activity structures selection structure and sequence structure make it easy to specify lower-level control-flows in a hierarchical structure.
However, in order to specify various process structures in WBL projects, more activity structures e.
B‐KIDE: a framework and a tool for business process‐oriented knowledge infrastructure development
Although conditions can be used to model some types of control-flows, it is very difficult to model complex, hierarchically structured work processes. It is not only an issue for the design of the user interface of the modeling tool, but also an issue for the design of the modeling language itself.
Because of the technical complexity of this issue, we do not discuss it in anymore detail. Replace the personal-property with the role-member-property: When defining a personal property e. However, if a property is relevant to a particular role, use of personal property will be not appropriate.
A role-member-property can be regarded and defined as an attribute of a person with a particular role. Like a role-property, a role-member-property is associated with a role. Unlike a role-property that represents a common feature of all members of the role, a role-member-property is used to model the same feature of each role member individually. According to this concept, a personal property of IMS LD like the user name can be defined as a role-member-property of the root-role.
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It is also needed to enable accessing role-member-property, for example, to calculate the mean of assessment results assigned by all supervisors. Then, introduction of the role-member-property will make it easy for WBL practitioners to build and share role models and for the system to manage and find participant knowledge. Conclusions and Future Work Work-based knowledge exists inside and outside an organization in explicit and tacit forms.
In order to support effective and efficient learning in WBL projects it would be nice if the knowledge developed in past WBL projects can be archived and reused. The challenge is how to facilitate people to find and acquire knowledge, and to convert and represent tacit and explicit knowledge. In this paper, we propose to adopt a business process-oriented knowledge management approach to facilitate WBL projects.
This approach can be characterized by: 1 providing a collection of BPMs and use a BPM as a framework to anchor knowledge in the work activities where the knowledge is developed and required; 2 enabling teachers, learners, and other stakeholders to develop a WBL project plan through reuse, customization, combination of BPMs; and 3 scaffolding learning by executing the WBL project plan, delivering context-sensitive and problem- oriented knowledge artifacts, and supporting the production, conversion, and representation of tacit and explicit knowledge in the context of application.
Through analyzing the requirements for the process modeling languages, we propose to use IMS LD, with necessary changes, to represent WBL project plans. Within these 'learning networks', participants can create, store, use and exchange knowledge resources, learning activities, units of learning, competence development programmes and networks for lifelong competence development.
The tools provided by the infrastructure can be used to create WBL programmes, manage e- portfolio, conduct assessments, and deliver learning modules. Contract References Abecker, A.
B Kide: A Framework And A Tool For Business Process Oriented Knowledge Infrastructure Development
Springer, Berlin. Retrieved from: www. Research driven projects. In Portwood, D. Eds , Work-based learning and the university: new perspectives and practices. Bosley, S, and Young, D.
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Online learning dialogues in learning through work, Journal of Workplace Learning, 8 6 : Boud, D. Costa, C. Costley, C.
Methodologies for undergraduates doing practitioner investigations at work. Journal of Workplace Learning, 19 3 : Eppler, M. Fink, F. The New Production of Knowledge: The dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies. London: Sage.